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Canadian Tax Implications in the Metaverse:  Companies Grapple with Prospect of Taxes on the Virtual World

business man with metaverse network city technology background
By: Crypto Tax Lawyer

Published: November 20, 2023

Last updated: December 4, 2023

The advent of innovations within the metaverse is generating widespread excitement across various aspects of life. Amidst this wave of change, crypto tax law in Canada emerges as a crucial arena grappling comprehensively with the diverse realities presented by the virtual world. Companies navigating the metaverse are confronted with a spectrum of challenges, sparking legal questions from different perspectives:

  1. Does the exchange of virtual currencies, whether for real or other virtual currencies, trigger tax consequences in Germany?
  2. Are metaverse activities, like purely virtual gambling, subject to taxation?
  3. Do employees receive non-cash benefits when provided with metaverse perks by their employers?
  4. Can the acquisition and lease of digital land be subjected to taxation?
  5. Can a digital enterprise, including digital agriculture and forestry, be operated in the metaverse?

As of now, these questions remain largely unexplored, with a preliminary discussion underway. While it will take years for supreme courts to provide definitive answers, a recent decision by the Federal Fiscal Court (BFH) in Europe sheds light on initial considerations regarding the metaverse.

What is the Metaverse?

The metaverse is a virtual, interconnected space that combines elements of augmented reality, virtual reality, and the internet, creating a shared, immersive digital environment where users can interact with each other and digital content in real-time. It goes beyond traditional online experiences, offering a seamless integration of physical and virtual realities. In the metaverse, users can engage in various activities such as socializing, working, gaming, and creating content through avatars and digital representations. It is characterized by its persistent and evolving nature, providing a dynamic and interconnected universe that transcends individual platforms, creating a vast, collaborative, and potentially limitless digital space. The concept of the metaverse has gained significant attention and development efforts from technology companies, signaling a potential shift in the way we perceive and engage with the digital world. In some cases it also interacts with crypto currency.

The BFH's Decision on Virtual Worlds in Analog Law

In a landmark decision on November 18, 2021, in Case: V R 38/19, the BFH addressed the tax classification of virtual reality within the metaverse, specifically focusing on "Second Life." The court made key statements that will shape the future landscape unless and until parliaments intervene to pass taxation requirements on the metaverse will:

  1. Virtual transactions, like the lease of digital land, were deemed not to be tax-relevant events, as they lacked significance beyond the gaming experience.
  2. However, the exchange of in-game currencies for real currencies was recognized as a transaction anchored in the real world, subject to turnover tax.
  3. The BFH highlighted the potential application of the reverse charge procedure in specific situations, emphasizing the need for companies to address bureaucratic consequences in advance.
  4. Determining the place of performance for turnover tax purposes was crucial, with the BFH concluding that the location was in the USA in the specific case.

Looking Ahead - Digital Worlds and Local Tax Law Reference

The place of performance or activity is a critical factor in tax law, and discussions around the taxation of the digital economy at the OECD level add complexity. The impact of the metaverse on location-based tax regulations raises questions about:

  1. Management board meetings in the metaverse.
  2. Qualification of metaverse income as domestic income in Germany.
  3. Residence considerations for individuals and companies engaged in purely virtual activities.
  4. Access and provision of data and activities in the metaverse for crypto audit purposes.
  5. Locally competent tax offices for purely virtual business operations in Germany.
  6. Trade or business conducted in Germany for trade tax purposes via purely virtual operations in the metaverse.

This decision from the German court establishes initial guidelines for taxing transactions within the metaverse, marking a significant step in addressing the complexities of digital transactions. It's noteworthy that the case centered around the game "Second Life," launched in 2003. Given the evolving nature of virtual worlds with more advanced capabilities, ongoing updates and refinements to legal precedents can be anticipated. This ruling serves as an initial signal, prompting a need for constant vigilance both at the political level, particularly within the OECD, and in terms of legal developments.

Canadian tax treatment of metaverse transactions

Based on the decision from the German court, the tax treatment of metaverse transactions in Canada would likely depend on how the Canadian tax authorities interpret and apply existing tax laws to virtual transactions. Key factors that may influence the tax treatment could include:

  • Characterization of Virtual Transactions: Similar to the BFH decision, Canada may need to determine whether virtual transactions, such as the lease of digital land, are considered taxable events. The significance of these transactions beyond the virtual environment may play a role in their tax treatment.
  • Exchange of Virtual and Real Currencies: The exchange of in-game currencies for real currencies will be subject to scrutiny. If Canadian tax authorities consider such exchanges to have real-world economic consequences, as they appear to at first instance, they will likely be subject to taxation.
  • Application of Reverse Charge Procedure: Whether Canada adopts a reverse charge procedure for specific situations would depend on the legislative framework and the perceived need for such measures to address tax implications effectively. Currently, there isn't a specific reverse charge procedure for value-added tax (VAT) in Canada as it exists in some other countries. Canada generally follows a system of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) and the Harmonized Sales Tax (HST), which are transaction-based consumption taxes. In Canada, the responsibility for collecting and remitting the GST/HST usually falls on the supplier. The recipient of the goods or services generally pays the tax directly to the supplier, who then remits it to the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA). However, if a non-resident business makes taxable supplies in Canada, they may be required to register for and remit the GST/HST.
  • Determining the Place of Performance: Similar to the BFH decision, the determination of the place of performance for turnover tax purposes would be crucial. Canadian tax authorities may establish guidelines for determining the jurisdiction of virtual transactions.

Pro tax tips – consult with an experienced Canadian tax professional regarding metaverse transactions

It's important to note that the taxation of emerging technologies and virtual transactions is a complex and evolving area. Canadian tax authorities may develop specific guidelines or regulations to address the unique challenges posed by metaverse transactions. As tax laws are subject to change, it is recommended to consult with an experienced Canadian crypto tax lawyer for the most up-to-date and accurate information on the tax treatment of metaverse transactions in the country.


What is the metaverse?

The metaverse is a digital, interconnected space that integrates elements of virtual and augmented reality, enabling users to engage with each other and digital content in real-time. It is characterized by its immersive and persistent nature, offering a seamless blend of physical and virtual experiences, sometimes interacting with Cryptocurrencies. The metaverse has garnered substantial interest and development, representing a transformative evolution of online interaction and collaboration beyond traditional internet platforms.

What is the current Canadian tax law on reverse charge?

Canada currently does not have a specific reverse charge procedure for value-added tax (VAT), unlike some other countries. Instead, the country follows a system of Goods and Services Tax (GST) and Harmonized Sales Tax (HST), which are transaction-based consumption taxes. Typically, the responsibility for collecting and remitting GST/HST rests with the supplier, with the recipient paying the tax directly to the supplier, who then remits it to the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA).


This article provides information of a general nature only. It is only current at the posting date. It is not updated, and it may no longer be current. It does not provide legal advice nor can it or should it be relied upon. All tax situations are specific to their facts and will differ from the situations in the articles. If you have specific legal questions, you should consult a Canadian tax lawyer.

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